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The present Nepal was created in the last half of the eighteenth century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the governor of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent states. The country was called the Gorkha Kingdom, root of the term "Gurkha" used for Nepali soldiers.

Since 1800, the heirs of Prithvi Narayan Shah proved that they were unable to maintain firm political control over Nepal. Followed a period of internal disorder, praise for the defeat of Nepal in the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-16).

Stability was restored after 1846 when the Rana family gained power, as well as atrinxerada through hereditary prime ministers, and reduced the monarchy to a front man. The Rana regime, a strongly centralized autocracy, followed a policy of isolating Nepal from external influences. This policy helped Nepal maintain its national independence during the colonial era, but also prevent the country's economic development.

Democratic Reform

The popular discontent against the government of the Rana family began to emerge among the few educated people of the time, who had studied at Indian universities. Many of them were marginalized by the hierarchy of government Rana. Many of these Nepalese in exile had taken part in the struggle for independence of India and Nepal wanted rid of the autocratic domestic employment.

First political parties

Political parties like Prajaparishadand, Nepali Rastriya Congress were trained in exile by patriots who wanted to organize the military and popular movement in Nepal by overthrowing Rana regime ad'autocràtic. Among the prominent martyrs who died for the cause carried on the hands of Rana were Dharma Bhakti Mathema, Shukraraj Shastri, Gangalal Shrestha and Dasharath Chand.

This culminated in 1950 when King Tribhuvan, a direct descendant of Prithvi Narayan Shah, fled his "palace prison" to the new independent India and organized an armed revolt against the Rana administration.

This allowed the return of the Shah family to power and finally the appointment of a non-Rana as prime minister. He then entered a period of semiconstitucional government, during which the monarchy, aided by the young leaders of political parties, ruled the country. During the 50s, efforts were made to draft a constitution for Nepal that would establish a representative government based on a British model.

1959. New Constitution and first democratic elections

In the early months of 1959, King Mahendra issued a new constitution and conducted the first democratic elections for a national assembly. The Nepali Congress Party, a moderate socialist group, gained substantially from the election. Its leader, B.P. Koirala, formed a government and served as Prime Minister.

Democratic failure

Declaring parliamentary democracy a failure 18 months later, King Mahendra had dismissed the Koirala government and promulgated a new constitution on 16 December 1962. The new constitution established a system of panchayats (councils) "no games". The king was considered that a democratic form of government closer to Nepalese traditions.

As a pyramid structure that progresses from assemblies in the villages till a Rastriya Panchayat (National Parliament), the panchayat system was entronar the absolute power of the monarchy and the king remained as | as head of state with full authority over all government institutions, including the cabinet (Council of Ministers) and Parliament.

1990. Parliamentary Democracy

King Mahendra was succeeded by his son, King Birendra, in 1972. Among the student demonstrations and activities antirègim in 1979, King Birendra called for a national referendum to decide the nature of the government of Nepal. The referendum was held in May 1980 and the panchayat system won a narrow margin. The king carried out the promised reforms, including the election of the Prime Minister, Rastriya Panchayat.

People in rural areas expect that their interests are well represented after the adoption of parliamentary democracy in 1990. When the promises of land reform did not occur, people in some districts began to organize themselves to enact their own reform of land and get some power over their lives.

However, this movement was repressed by the Nepali government in the "Operation Romeo" and the "Operation Kilo Sera II," which took the lives of many of the leading activists of the struggle. As a result, many witnesses of the crackdown became radicals.

1996. Start the Civil War

On 13 February 1996 the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) launched the "People's War", an insurgency with the declared goal of overthrowing the existing monarchical state and establish a communist republic, or a "popular democracy" Maoist.

Led by Baburam Bhattarai and Pushpa Kamal Dahal (also known as Prachanda), the insurgency began in five districts of Nepal: Rolpa, Rukum, Jajarkot, Gorkha and Sindhuli. The Maoist declared the existence of a "popular government" provisional district-level in various locations.

2001 to present days

In June 2001, the Crown Prince Dipendra, killed 11 members of the royal family including King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya prior to suicide.

Temporarily became king before his death the result of his wounds. He inherited the throne, his uncle, Prince Gyanendra. Meanwhile, the Maoist rebellion grew il'octubre 2002 the king was deposed and the government temporarily took control of this total. A week later, was appointed to another government, but still unstable country by civil war with Maoist, various political factions, the king attempts to take more control of government and worry about the competition his son and heir, Prince Rail. King Gyanendra took control once again on 1 February 2005.

Gyanendra of absolutism and democracy (2005-2008)

In February 2005, Gyanendra dissolved the government and exercised all executive power to fight the Maoist. The guerrillas then declared a ceasefire for three months but continued the monarchy with absolute power "even a call for elections in 2007. Then the seven parliamentary parties (SPA) with the support of Maoist led a massive uprising of the people against King Gyanendra. People drove on the streets and flooding of demonstrations and strikes nationwide calling for the resignation to the king. But the resistance of these became even more fierce ... The demonstrators were then surrounded the royal palace. 21 died and thousands were injured in a brutal intervention.

Protests and pressure foreign Gyanendra did say that on 21 April 2006 "return power to the people." The protests continued in some places to achieve a total elimination of the monarchy but the violence was lost and the King brought together the seven parties to elect a new prime minister on 24 April, the king ordered that four days later meet the new parliament, pending new elections.

In addition in May of that year were withdrawn the charges of terrorism against members of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and was extended to the Interpol request for annulment of the orders of arrest against members of the party to the continuation of peace and even alliance between Maoist and seven political parties.

Since then Parliament and the Maoist signed peace in August asking for UN assistance for disarmament. It worked on the future of the monarchy, the king left his title descending divine Hindu, his power over the army il'obligà to pay taxes. From the moment the government of Nepal is no longer known as "The Government of His Majesty" but as "Government of Nepal."

Abolition of the monarchy

On 28 December 2007 the Parliament decided to abolish the monarchy by a large majority and decided to reform the constitution and integration of the Maoist army. The Republic was proclaimed by the Constituent Assembly on 28 May 2008, five hundred and sixty of its members votes in favor to four against.

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